Polyacrylamide is a floocculant, simply called PAM, a water- soluble high polymer and widely used in petroleum, paper-making, metallurgical, textile, chemical and environment protection fields. There are three categories of anionic, cationic and non-ionic type.
Flocculation Mechanism: Adsorbing suspension particles, polymer chains entangle and cross-link each other to form bridging, and make flocculation structure enlarge and thicken, and has the functions of surface adsorption and electric neutralization. Reinforcing Mechanism: PAM molecule chain and dispersed phase form bridging bond, ion bond and covalent bond to increase combination strength.
PAM series products contain affinity radical and they can dissolve in water easily and play the role of flocculation, filtering-assist, increasing adherence, reducing resistance, coherence, reinforcing and rheologic regulation and can be used extensively. Flocculation property can be used for recovering solid substance, treating various industrial sewage, domestic sewage and purifying water, assisting filtering, treatment of tail coal as well as well-drilling slurry material etc. With the rheologic regulation function PAM can thicken water recover driving agent for oil field to reform ground section, enhance adoption ratio.
It can make up fracturing solution to fracture the stratum which is difficult to drill and it also can make up well-drilling solution which can reduce friction and resistance, accelerate drilling speed, improve drilling depth. With the property of adherence and reinforcing of PAM, it can be used for paper-making industry to enhance staying rate of filling material, speed size filterability and white water sediment in the paper and then coagulate to increase the strength of the paper. PAM can be used with polyvinyl alcohol as textile size, this can improve textile process and enhance the property of textile.
When use PAM series products, first make up dilute solution, usually 0.01%-0.1%, thus it is easy to mix with treated substance to get the best result. When make up dilute solution, try best to use water that is neutral or doesn't contain metallic salt. When make up solution, usually the temperature is between 50-60. When used as paper-making staying-assist agent, density couldn't be too high, other-wise the paper size will appear flocculation, usually it is between 100-300 PPM. When used as flocculation agent it is necessary to select type and size of PAM series products according to pH value of treated substance.
1. Anionic PAM is suitable for higher density, inorganic suspension substance with positive charge and pH value is neutral of basic solution with thick suspension particles 1mm-10mm.
2. Non-ionic PAM is suitable for separating mixed organic and inorganic suspension, the solution is neutral or acid.
3. Cationic PAM is suitable for suspension solution with negative charge and containing organic substance.